Ghana and Kenya
Course Pack November 2019

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    Jamhuri ya Kenya or the Republic of Kenya is East Africa’s second-largest economy after Ethiopia. With land cover of 580 367 square kilometres (224 081 sq mi), Kenya is the world’s 48th largest country by total area. The population is estimated at 52.2 million people.

    Nairobi, the capital city is home to rich multicultural life and headquarters to a number of international organisations.

    Kenya is a place of deep history. Nestled between Mount Kenya where the country takes its name and Lake Nyanza, arguably the largest of the African Great lakes and the most enduring freshwater body on the planet, the region occupied by Kenya produced one of the oldest hominids, the Turkana Boy.

    Recorded history has it that the first inhabitants are similar to the Khoisan of Southern Africa. They were later joined by Cushite speakers from the horn of Africa and by the Nilotic-speaking groups such as the Kalenjin, Samburu, Luo, Turkana and Massai of modern-day South Sudan. The Bantu speakers, the Kikuyu, Luhya, Kamba, Kisii, Meru, Kuria, Aembu, Ambeer, among others, coming from the region along the Benue River in eastern Nigeria and western Cameroon all settled around the first millennium AD. By the close of the 17th century, the Omani Arabs, through trade, would establish a foothold on the coast of the country and the melting pot of the birth of the new lingua franca, Swahili, a Bantu language with influences from Arabic, Persian, Portuguese and English emerged as a lingua franca in East Africa. In 1888 the British East India Company, through its vast acquisitions across the length and breadth of the continent, brought this mighty land under its control until Dedan Kimathi’s Mau Mau uprising which, although it ended in the late 1950s, provided the impetus for the independence struggle.

    Kenya is a lower-middle-income economy according to the World Bank classification system with $1 460. Africa is Kenya’s largest export market, followed by the European Union.

    Jomo Kenyatta, the first president, ruled from 1964 to his death in 1978 and was replaced by Daniel Arap Moi who installed a one-party state until 1992, when the country embraced multiparty democracy. Moi left office in 2002 and was replaced by Mwai Kibaki. Since 2013, the country has been ruled by Uhuru Kenyatta, the son of the first president.

    Kenya is a land of natural beauty and wildlife. The Nairobi National Park is the only one of its kind in a big city where one can see great wildlife. Masai Mara and the numerous national parks preserve the marvellous wildlife landscape of East Africa. Seeing the annual blue wildebeest migration across the Mara River is an experience of a lifetime.



    Formerly known as the Gold Coast, Ghana gained independence from Britain in 1957, becoming the first sub-Saharan nation to break free from the shackles of colonial rule. Gold, cocoa and more recently oil form the cornerstone of Ghana’s economy and helped fuel an economic boom. The name “Ghana” literally means “Warrior King”, and it refers to the ancient empire that flourished from 700 AD to about 1240, extending from Mauritania and western Mali. The present-day country took its name from this great empire which, until the present day, laid the foundations for some of the illustrious trading posts on the African continent. Spanning a land mass of 238 535 km², Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east, and the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean in the south. A multicultural nation, Ghana’s 2016 GDP per capita was US$1,513.46 with a corresponding population of approximately 29 million, spanning a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. Five per cent of the population practices traditional faiths, 67.2% adhere to Christianity and 23.6% are Muslim. Its diverse geography and ecology range from coastal savannahs to tropical jungles. The Ghanaian cedi is the national currency.

    Ghana’s wealth of resources, democratic political system and dynamic economy, make it undoubtedly one of Africa’s leading lights. Gaining the world’s confidence with a series of peaceful political transitions and a grounded and firm commitment to democracy has helped in expediting Ghana’s growth in foreign direct investment (FDI) in recent years. Ghana has a solid tradition of investments in agriculture and agro-processing. The financial services and telecommunications sectors are fast gaining ground, providing dynamic and innovative services to the most diverse customers in the world. Further opportunities exist in manufacturing, ICT, and tourism. Mineral deposits including gold and diamonds abound, and with the discovery of oil, Ghana’s famous black star has never shone brighter (Ghana Investment Promotion Centre).



    As global leaders, it is vital to understand the business and socio-economic culture of countries on the African continent. There is much to be learnt from our African counterparts, and this course, which is an on-field, unique learning experience, exposes students to these key issues:

    • Review the history, social-cultural background, and political economy of Kenya and Ghana.

    • Overview of economic performance: economic success and challenges.

    • Assess the risks and opportunities of doing business in Kenya and Ghana.

    • The central role of politics in business, and business in politics.

    • The evolution of firms and state-owned enterprises into modern corporations operating in the global economy.

    • The rapid rise of private enterprise and the specific challenges facing start-ups in light of the new digital economy.

    • The special and evolving characteristics of capital markets, and related risks.

    • The emergence of an increasingly powerful middle class and its impact on the consumer market and corporate social responsibility.

    This study tour exposes students to different economies and cultures, as well as different organisations in Ghana and Kenya, including business schools, government agencies, state-owned enterprises and private corporations.

    On completion of this course, students will be able to:

    • Draw on contemporary knowledge about business practices in Kenya and Ghana that will assist them to appraise the basics and standard protocols of interactions with the business environment in Ghana and Kenya.
    • Critically assess the Kenyan and Ghanaian economies to determine their strengths and weaknesses for doing business. 
    • Compare and contrast the business environments and different cultures of Ghana and Kenya and integrate these with the lessons imbibed during the MBA programme: emerging market economies, trade flows, and new enterprises.
    •  Evaluate and analyse business opportunities of selected companies and design plans to utilise the continent’s great potential for growth and job creation.

    Curriculum linked to the context in South Africa

    The study tour draws on various company experiences in Africa. Here the extensive use of company site visits is geared to help students make comparisons between the companies’ operations in South Africa and those in other African countries.

    Curriculum linked to the context in African and other dynamic emerging market economies

    The overarching objective is to identify the opportunities for growth on the African continent, as well as its challenges, such as the slow-down of major emerging markets and the associated fluctuations in commodity prices. It maps these global issues to the level of individual African countries and major firms in those countries, thereby stimulating students to start considering these issues at a management level.


    The visits to companies and institutions that form part of the study tour, address the optimal overall resource allocation in economies and the role of this allocation in free markets and command economies, or a mixture of these, in Ghana and Kenya.

    Entrepreneurial action

    The visits to companies and institutions provide the students with insights into innovation and entrepreneurial actions and (managed) risk-taking, thereby guiding  them to make decisions at a management level. It also offers them practical experiences to help them to understand how businesses are set up and run.

    Critical engagement

    By focussing on examples of successful and unsuccessful business ventures in Africa and other emerging markets, the course enables students to acquire a better perspective on the consequences of business decisions.

    This study tour underpins all other MBA courses as it contributes to the overall MBA qualification by providing a capstone integrated learning experience in which students can bring to bear their knowledge of the entire MBA programme to analyse foreign economies, and businesses in those economies. In addition to this, the tour directly supports the core themes of the MBA in terms of critical engagement, and sustainability.

    Decisions and methodologies which students are exposed to during their company visits and cultural interactions—from Strategy to HR to Operations to Marketing—are expressed as the underlying issues and learnings of this course.


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    Course assesment and assignments

    Learning Contract

    Please note, all visits and events on the global study tour are MANDATORY. Please refer to the standing orders regarding the tours. As a student, you should review the Learning Contract and ensure you are fully aware of the methods and implications of the assessment approach as mark allocations cannot be changed retrospectively. If you have any concerns about the assessment, you should raise this with your tour leader at the start of the course.


    The Importance of Preparation for the Study Tour

    The above readings should be read before departure. Students should also research on the companies that will be visited. The scope of this course covers a wide range of topics, thus a variety of readings have been carefully selected to provide different perspectives. It is essential that students focus on these readings and embark on company research. Appended with the readings are the links for ease of access. However, should you encounter any problems with the links provided consult the WITS library e-journals catalogue or consult the WBS Librarian.


    Teaching Methods

    Teaching emphasis in the MBA Global Study Tour is experiential and involves on-site action learning. The tour itself would entail visits to one or more destinations to provide broader international learning exposure for the student. Students should keep a learning log on insights that they gain from each business or organisation that they visit, and these logs are used for debrief sessions during the tour as well as to compile a post-study tour assignment on what they have learnt.


    Copyright Statement

    The articles, readings and cases included in this course pack have been copyright approved.

    The course assessments are weighted as follows:

    Assessment: Exam Equivalent Assignment
    Deadline: 29 November  2019
    Results Return Date: 10 December 2019


    Assessment: Amazing Race
    Deadline: 17 November  2019
    Results Return Date: 20 November 2019

    Please note: Students are required to sign and attach the WBS Plagiarism Declaration to each assignment submitted


    Pass Mark Requirements

    In terms of the Standing Orders, to pass a course a student is required to achieve a final cumulative average of 50% for a pass mark, and a subminimum of 35% for the examination. In a case where an assignment is an exam equivalent, failure to submit on time will result in the student being ‘failed absent’, with the result that the student will be removed from the programme.

    Requirement: Choose ONE of the following assignments.

    • Formulate a business plan for an idea that can be sold as a business opportunity in either Ghana or Kenya.


    • Discuss your “take-home learnings” from the study tour of Ghana and Kenya using the following points as a guide.
      1. Discuss what you did learn from the amazing race, what was new or different from what you have experienced before. Please include pictures to illustrate this.
      2. Discuss the most important business meeting you participated in during the tour: Give some background information about the company and the environment that it operates in and highlight your key learning points from each meeting (at least 3 per meeting).
      3. Discuss any other key learning points that you gained from going on this trip. (This can be anything you learned either about yourself, the country, the people, your fellow travelers or anything not covered in the two points above.)


    • Your report must be 2 to 3 pages long (without references and appendices).
    • Please submit a hard copy to Karen Trent at the International Relations Office with a plagiarism declaration by 29 November 2019.
    • Use 1.5 line spacing and a 12-point font.
    • Please ensure that you reference correctly, as per the WBS guidelines.

    Penalty for late submission: For every calendar day, or part thereof, that your assignment is late, 10 % will be deducted from your marks.

    Mark allocation criteria:  

    Application of theories developed and learned throughout the MBA programme. 30%

    Integration of theories learned and experience acquired during the study tour. 30%

    Research and use of relevant data to complement the assignment. 30%

    Presentation: Referencing, style, presentation, etc. 10%

    TOTAL: 100

    The purpose of this assignment is for you to think quickly on your feet. It’s fun and interesting. You will be put in a syndicate group and will need to work as a team. The purpose of this assignment requires you to think out of the box and familiarise yourself with the environment. As a suggestion, download maps; know the history of the country, all online attractions and all modes of transport.

    At the end of this exercise, each syndicate group must provide the following:

    • A brief report on the success, challenges and lessons learnt during the exercise (maximum 500 words).
    • Pictures of the locations visited and any other thing of interest relevant to the task.
    • A short video summarising the core of the assignment (professional editing not needed)
    • Provide receipts for the use of public transport and/or special facilities during the exercise.
    1. Provide all the above (except receipts on a memory stick).
    2. Details of the assignment will be provided by the tour leaders.
    • Alagidede, P., Baah-Boateng, W., & Nketiah-Amponsah, E. (2013). The Ghanaian economy: an overview. Ghanaian Journal of Economics, 1(1), 4-34.
    • Aryeetey, E., & Kanbur, R. (2006). Ghana’s economy at half-century: An overview of stability, growth and poverty.
    • Mwangi, J.G. (1999). Policy Milestones in Kenya that have Supported or Constrained Sustainable Agriculture and Poverty Alleviation 1890–1999. Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education.
    • Ojiambo, P.O. (2009). Quality of Education and its role in national development: A Case study of Kenya’s educational reforms. Kenya Studies Review, 1(1), pp 133–149.
    • Zeleza, Tiyambi (1991). Economic policy and performance in Kenya since independence. Transafrican Journal of History, Vol. 20, pp. 35-76.

    Additional Info and Contact Details

    Remember your documents, chargers and adaptors when travelling outside of South Africa.

    Bring formal wear, comfortable walking shoes, and business cards for company visits, consult online resources for travel tips.


    Dress Code

    • WBS Formal for all Business Meetings
    • WBS Formal is a strict white inner with navy or black suit (with WBS tie or scarf).
    • Conservative suits for men or women with navy or black are the norm.
    • Women should avoid high heels and short-sleeved blouses.
    • Subtle, neutral colours should be worn by both men and women (Smart casual).
    • Smart Casual dress should be conservative as well.
    • Men and women can wear jeans. However, jeans are not acceptable for business meetings.

    Prof. Imhotep P Alagidede Email:  

    Prof Mjumo Mzyece Email: 



    South African Embassy in Nairobi
    3rd Floor, Roshamaer Place, P.O. Box 42441

    Nairobi, Kenya

    Tel: +254 709 12700




    South African Embassy in Accra
    SA High Commission, Plot NR A69, 

    Orphan Crescent, North Labone, Accra, Ghana          

    Tel: + 233 (0) 302-740450/1




    Hotel in Nairobi, Kenya:
    DoubleTree by Hilton Nairobi Hurlingham, Ngong Lane, off Ngong Road, Nairobi, 00400, Kenya


    Tel: +254-709090000

    Hotel in Accra, Ghana: 

    Fiesta Royale Hotel, 13 Afari Djan Street, ECOMOG Avenue, George W. Bush Hwy, Accra, Ghana


    Tel:+233-30 274 0811

    Company visits and activities

    Accordion Content

    Lead Academics

    Imhotep Alagidede is Professor of Finance at the University of the Witwatersrand and the Academic Director of the Wits Business School. He is also the Executive Director of the African Finance and Economics Consult, the President and CEO of the Nile Valley Group of companies and the convener of the annual African Review of Economics and Finance conference. He has nearly two decades experience in teaching and research in applied economics, policy evaluation, modelling and forecasting. He has held a number of visiting and permanent professorship positions in leading academic institutions in the UK, South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Mauritius and Ghana.


    Imhotep is a meta-economist and a transdisciplinary scholar with an avid interest in the noumena behind phenomena. He has published widely in leading international peer-reviewed journals, and he is the founder of four academic journals: African Review of Economics and Finance, Journal of African Political Economy and Development, Ghanaian Journal of Economics and the Journal of Indigenous and Ancestral Studies. He has mentored over 15 pre-doctoral, doctoral and post-doctoral fellows in the last four years, and consulted widely for governments, multilateral agencies and blue-chip corporations. 


    His teaching, research and consultancy career has taken him to six continents.  He dreams of visiting Antarctica and retiring to nature to pursue his passion for indigenous flora and fauna. He loves flying helicopters, intensely enjoys kayaking in the planets waters, and is always at home with laughter and fun with his wife and daughter.


    Mjumo Mzyece is Associate Professor of Technology and Operations Management (TOM) at the Wits Business School (WBS). His research interests include digital operations; operations in high-tech startups; next-generation digital communications networks; business model innovation; technology management, strategy and policy; and innovation management, strategy and policy. He has authored or co-authored over 55 peer-reviewed scientific and technical publications, which have been widely cited, including in academic articles and papers, commercial patents, and policy documents. He teaches on WBS’s MBA, Innovation Studies and Digital Business postgraduate programmes and facilitates executive education programmes for various clients.


    Prior to joining WBS, he led the Smart Industries (ICT and Advanced Manufacturing) unit at The Innovation Hub, the innovation agency of the Gauteng Provincial Government. He has over 20 years of international experience in the global technology industry, spanning three continents (Africa, Europe, North America). He has held various management, operational, R&D, consulting and academic roles in leading firms, including IBM U.S., Econet Wireless International, and Agilent Technologies.


    He holds a Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) (Honours) in Electronic & Electrical Engineering from Manchester University, England; a Master of Science (MSc) (Distinction) in Communications Technology & Policy and a PhD in Electronic & Electrical Engineering, both from Strathclyde University, Scotland; and an MBA from Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business, USA, where he was awarded a Keller Scholarship, Duke’s most prestigious MBA academic scholarship.

    Student Commitments

    Legal Declaration of Indemnity, Undertaking and Consent
    1. The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (hereafter referred to as ‘the University’) has insured itself for its liability arising from the acts and omissions of persons acting on its behalf, and that its registered students, staff and individuals who are subject to the University’s rules, regulations, policies, procedures and standing orders as amended from time to time are insured during the course and scope of their registered courses and/or within the scope of University’s business. This is subject to the proviso that the University’s maximum liability will be limited, whether for a single or multiple events, to the extent that is covered thereof;
    2. When the University arranges for me to travel to locations which are outside of the University’s precincts, and when traveling in vehicles which do not belong to the University’s and/or are not driven by University staff, I will enjoy only such cover as referred to in Section 1 above, provided that I depart and travel from the University’s precincts and return to it from an excursion arrange by the University, on a route agreed upon in advance by the University;
    3. In cases where no fault can be attributed to the University, I hereby indemnify, absolve and hold harmless the University, its officials, employees, students and invitees in respect of any damage the property, death or bodily injury to/of myself and/or third parties, whether on/off the University precincts, or whilst engaged in any related activity to the University abroad; and
    4. I understand that I attend and participate in the WBS Global Study Tour in various designated countries around the world during specified periods in 2019 at my own risk where the event falls outside the cover provided to or by the University.
    5. I acknowledge that I have read and understood the contents of this indemnity in every respect.
    This document is applicable to all modes of delivery of the Global Study Tour from 2017 onward. 

    Assessment Policy
    All assignments, including the attendance of the Amazing Race and all scheduled visits to businesses, other organisations and cultural activities, is compulsory.

    Failure to comply with this policy will result in an automatic failure off this course. A record of attendance at each prescribed tour activity will be kept by the Tour Leader and will be submitted to the International Office as a formal record for student assessment. Should a student fail (including as a result of non-attendance and failure to participate), the tour will have to be repeated.

    A candidate who has not completed all the requirements for this tour by the end of the minimum period of study and who is permitted in terms of Senate Standing Orders to continue will be required to register again for this tour at the beginning of the following academic year and pay the relevant fee.

    Registration for the Global Study Tour
    A candidate is required to register and pay in advance for the Study Tour in order to be admitted to complete the course.

    If a candidate wishes to amend his/her selection of destination, a prescribed period of time will be permitted as indicated by the Global Study Tour Coordinator. However, no changes to selection of destination will be entertained once confirmed.

    International Applicants
    Applications from international exchange and immersion students are welcome. All international students need to conform with the University’s requirements and the South African legislation that pertains to such students.

    Credits towards MBA or MM to other degrees
    Students may be granted credits for this tour at international partner schools however please note that the granting of credits is based on the credit weighting exchange between the WBS MBA and other international programmes.

    Pass mark for this course
    In order to pass the study tour, a student must obtain a minimum of 50% as a final mark subject to the subminimum rule.

    Students must register for the Global Business Study Tour (BUSA 7442A) in order to pay the travel component cost for the study tour. Students will be advised as to the Rand value that has to be paid for the study tour of their choice. The deadline for the choice of study tour and payments will be communicated to students by the School’s International Office. Failure to pay the full fee for the Global Study Tour in advance or failure to attend the tour for whatever reason will still hold the student liable for the full amount as indicated for the selected tour package. Please note that fees may not involve the same costing as certain travel destinations are cheaper than others. Also note that whenever indicated students will be responsible for their own transport and cost of meals and incidentals on each tour. Tour leaders do not carry additional funds to allow for students who do not make personal provision for their own expenses.

    Allocation of Marks
    The mark composition for each assignment will comprise a combination of marks awarded for assignment projects and field work, both individual and syndicate work. The mark allocation for the course is detailed in the course pack.

    Syndicates may apply to have non-performing members excluded from the syndicate mark for their assignment, or have a portion of the total mark allocated to the non-performing student.

    Publication of Final Course Results
    The results of the global study tour will be published by the Faculty Office as soon as possible, normally within four weeks from assignment submission.

    Disputes and Grievances
    Any disputes or grievances that arise as a result of the application of, or failure to apply, the provisions of these Standing Orders should be managed within the Faculty’s existing appeals and grievance procedure. Problems should always be resolved as close to the source as possible. The grievance procedure policy and applicable forms are available from the Faculty Office.

    Code of Conduct
    All students will abide by the daily dress code as indicated by the Tour Leader depending on the daily schedule of events and places visited.

    Students are also advised that whilst they are encouraged to enjoy the tour, they are reminded that they are participating in a Wits Study Tour programme and are not traveling for their own leisure purposes. As such, the prime focus is on teaching and learning and at all times students will need to participate in all prescribed activities and field visits.

    Students are advised to heed the guidance and instruction of the designated Tour Leader on each trip. In addition, students are advised to serve as professional ambassadors of Wits University and the Wits Business School at all times whilst on tour. Students are also advised to download a copy of the Wits Student Code of Conduct to familiarise themselves with the policy.

    During visits, students are to ensure that all mobile phones are switched off.
    Students are to be punctual for all visits, failure to attend a visit without a valid reason will render your attendance as incomplete.

    Failure to adhere to the above could result in a disciplinary action being lodged against the student.

    Recording of Global Study Tour Activities
    Business visit sessions may only be recorded (by audio, images or video) with the express written permission of that organisation. Students will be required to agree in writing that:

      • recordings will only be used for purposes of their own private study and revision;
      • recordings will not be copied, shared, communicated, published or distributed in any format whatsoever and using any medium whatsoever, unless requested to do so by the lecturer;
      • unedited copies recordings will be provided to the lecturer if requested to do so; and
      • Copyright of all recordings remain the property of the University.

    It is noted that infringement of any of these conditions may result in disciplinary action being taken against the student.

    Download and complete these forms

    NB: To be completed and returned to before you leave.